Neuromodulation of the posterior subthalamic area influences upper limb function in Parkinson's disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative disorder widely believed to be the result of a pathophysiologic loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia system. Tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia are the three hallmark motor symptoms of PD and are often presented in the upper limb. Whilst a single motor symptom can predominate, it is also common for an individual with PD to display an overlapping of mixed presentation of all these symptoms. As a result, there can be a wide individual differences in the symptomology. The presence of these motor symptoms impairs movement and severely affects the quality of life in individuals with PD.